Our work has been used to provide the science basis – the carbon stock estimates (Draper et al. 2014) – for a major new $6 million conservation project in Peru. This is the first conservation project to be funded by the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the major international funding mechanism that has been created to fund mitigation and adaptation to climate change in developing countries.
The full implementation of the Green Climate Fund – intended to transfer funds of 100 billion dollars annually from developed to developing countries – is a major component of the UNFCCC negotiations that will be held in Paris over the next two weeks. The fund remains a contentious issue, as it touches on a key area of discord between nations: how countries that have contributed most to causing climate change, should compensate the nations that have contributed little, but will suffer the most. We are pleased that our science underpins the very first project to be approved by this fund, and is thereby helping the GCF to be seen as a credible and effective way of funding adaptation and mitigation of climate change, and support the emergence of a strong, effective and globally-binding deal during COP21 in Paris over the next two weeks.
The $6 million investment in conservation is an innovative project that will promote and develop sustainable ‘bio-businesses’ run by a range of indigenous communities in the Pastaza and Morona rivers of the northern Peruvian Amazon. These businesses will increase the incomes of these communities based on sustainable harvesting of the forest products such as palm fruit, and ensure that the extensive peatlands in this region are not degraded. As a result, the large carbon stores in this ecosystems will remain in the ground, as peat.
To read more about the GCF, see http://www.greenclimate.fund/home. The project we are associated with is the first of the eight projects accepted in the first tranche of funding and is called ‘Building resilience of wetlands in the province of Datem del Maranon’.
Location of wetland forest study sites near Jenaro Herrera, Rio Ucayali, Loreto, Peru (Figure 1; Honorio et al. 2015)
The floristic composition of the seasonally flooded and peat swamp forests of the Peruvian Amazon is poorly known in comparison to many other vegetation types in the region. But this lack of knowledge is not really due to a lack of fieldwork – there have been many environmental impact assessments related to the oil industry that incorporate floristic work as well as assorted inventories by different organisations. The problem is that these data remain hidden from public view and therefore knowledge does not accumulate and advance. This is the reason that this new publication by Euridice Honorio and colleagues at the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana is important: it provides open-access, baseline data on the structure and composition of Peruvian wetland forests. The availability of this information will help us to learn more about spatial variation in the composition of these ecosystems, as well as evaluate how they change over time.
PAGES C-PEAT is a new working group on the long-term history of peatlands around the globe. Drawing mainly on geological (including Holocene) perspectives, the group aims to synthesize our understanding of past change in peatland ecosystems and use that to help predict their future. Ian Lawson presented a summary of the group’s work on Pastaza-Marañón Basin peatlands at C-PEAT’s inaugural meeting at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New Jersey. This was one of a number of papers emphasizing the vulnerability of tropical peatlands to land-use change. Mapping future threats to peatlands – and opportunities for conservation – emerged as the basis of a new theme for the working group, which will be co-led by Ian.
Ian Lawson presented a summary of the group’s work in Peru at the Congress of the International Union for Quaternary Science in Nagoya, Japan.
River levels are dropping in Loreto, northern Peru at this time of year, and that means that access is briefly possible to some of the fascinating peatland forests that we have been working on over the last few years. And for the first field season ever, the vegetation and carbon map published by Freddie Draper last year is available to guide our thinking about where to go and what to look out for. Many of these fieldtrips one way or another involve the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, key members of the Tropical Wetlands Consortium, and it is exciting to have a framework that can be used to suggest places to go – and interpret the results as they come in. Our old friend Victor Chama who has worked with the RAINFOR plot network for many years, has taken an auger with him to the upper stretches of the Rio Corrientes where he is examining the state of the forests that are close to areas that have been impacted by the oil industry; we look forward to finding out how deep the peat is in this unstudied region. Other researchers at IIAP have reported new records of the unique pole forests (‘varillal hidromorfico’; the most carbon dense vegetation type in the Amazon) that was mapped for the first time last year, and these reports will help us improve our understanding of how these habitats have developed. The Carnegie Institute and CIFOR are also undertaking fieldwork in the region this year, with the support of IIAP. Finally, the Field Museum of Chicago is completing its report about their recent Rapid Inventory of sites along the Rio Tapiche; this report together with other rapid inventories from the southern area of the peatland complex will improve our understanding of this region. Doubtless, the current map will be improved as more field data becomes available. However, what is most exciting is how the map is allowing us to develop a truly landscape-scale perspective on how these special habitats have formed.
The results of Freddie Draper concerning the high carbon stocks of the peatlands of Loreto, northern Peru were featured in El Peruano – a Peruvian national newspaper. The article is based on our presentation on the margins of COP20, Lima, Peru in December 2014, and emphasises the role of the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana in leading research in tropical wetlands in northern Peru.
Two recent reports suggest that the potential threats to Amazonian peatlands from deforestation for oil palms and cacao, and gold mining and other extractive industries, are growing. The EIA published a particularly critical report last month, and MAAP also claims to have found evidence of significant deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon in its analyses of LandSat imagery. This raises the concern that the relatively unglamorous and little-known, but very carbon-dense peatlands in Loreto (Draper et al. 2014) could come under pressure if (often very badly needed) agricultural and industrial development is deflected away from terra firme forest.
Tom Kelly passed his PhD viva at the University of Leeds, with well-deserved commendations from his examiners Rob Marchant (University of York) and David Galbraith (Leeds). His supervisors (Ian Lawson, Katy Roucoux and Tim Baker) are very proud!
Tom has already led or contributed to several papers through his research, and we look forward to seeing several more emerge over the next few months.
The theme of this conference was “Resilience of tropical ecosystems – future challenges and opportunities” – very much in line with our research aims. Katy Roucoux gave a presentation on the palaeoecology of forest hollows, and presented (on Freddie’s behalf) a poster by Draper et al. summarizing our recent paper in ERL.
Ian Lawson chaired the meeting, which welcomed several new members. Katy and Ian both gave presentations of their recent work.